Willow's autopsy pictures


Willow

Abdomen.




Willow

Abdomen.




Willow

Kidney.




Willow

Kidney.




Willow

Kidney.




Willow

Kidney.




Willow

Kidney.




Willow

Chest cavity and lungs.





Blood test values from 15.05.06

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY RESULTS:

T protein 63 g/L (43-60)
Albumin 28 g/L (34-48)
Globulin 35 g/L (2-24)
A:G ratio 0.8
Urea 28.2 mmol/l (0.2-16.1) High
Creatinine 101 umol/L (8.8-106)
ALT 82 U/L (48-292)
ALP 17 U/L (14-144)
Bilirubin 4.5 umol/l (0-17)

Sample appearance : Plasma appears lipaemic.

HAEMATOLOGY RESULTS:

RBCs 6.38 x 10^12/L (4.75-13.1)
Haemoglobin (Hgb) 11.8 g/dL (6.8-20.2)
Hct 29.6 % (36-53) Low
MCV 46.4 fL (42.3-65.7)
MCH 18.6 pg (14.2-20.0)
MCHC 400 g/dL (280-400)
WBCs 6.5 x 10^9/L (2-10)
Neutrophils 4.5 x 10^9/L (0.74-6.7)
Band Neutrophils 0.0 x 10^9/L (0.026-1.97)
Lymphocytes 1.8 x 10^9/L (0.25-7.75)
Monocytes 0.1 x 10^9/L (0.022-1.17)
Eosinophils 0.1 x 10^9/L (0.022-1.77)
Platelet count 493 x 10^9/L (113-500)

Smear Report

No prepared smears submitted. Platelet numbers appear plentiful with occasional aggregates in the tail of the smear. Erythrocytes show mild anisocytosis and crenation (probably due to postal aging). Leukocytes show some degenerative changes with moderately frequent smudged and basket cells; the differential count should therefore be interpreted with caution.

The significance of hyperglobulinaemia depends upon which fraction of the globulins is increased and this can only be determined by serum protein electrophoresis. Lymphoma is among the possible causes, but acute inflammation, chronic antigenic stimulation and chronic liver disease can all induce a hyperglobulinaemia. The elevated blood urea suggests possible renal disease.


Willow's pathology report:


HISTORY
Sections of liver, kidney, spleen, heart and lung from a 5-year-old, neutered female ferret were examined microscopically.


Diagnosis
End-stage kidney and Pulmonary Congestion

Prognosis
Not Applicable


Histopathology Report

Sections of liver, kidney, spleen, heart and lung from a 5-year-old, neutered female ferret were examined microscopically.

LIVER: Microscopy reveals very mild, patchy hepatocytic lipidosis, considered to be within normal limits, otherwise the section is histologically largely unremarkable.

KIDNEY: The section reveals severe pathological changes: there is widespread interstitial fibrosis associated with interstitial lymphocytic infiltration; variable tubular atrophy, dilatation and mineralization; thickening of Bowman's capsules, with adhesions to glomerular tufts; glomerular sclerosis and atrophy; and a single large focus of osseous metaplasia.

SPLEEN: The red pulp is moderately congested and contains a substantial amount of haemopoietic tissue (extramedullary haemopoiesis, or EMH). The white pulp is unremarkable.

HEART: The ventricles appear moderately dilated, but the relative thicknesses of the left and right ventricular walls appear within normal limits and there are no histopathological changes in the myocardium to suggest a true dilated cardiomyopathy. The valve leaflets included in the section, and the wall of the aorta, appear unremarkable.

LUNG: The section reveals moderate congestion and patchy alveolar effusion. A fair amount of mucoid material is present in the lumina of mainstem bronchi, but there is little in the way of associated inflammation.

DIAGNOSIS: End-stage kidney.

DISCUSSION: The changes in the section of kidney examined are those of a virtually end-stage kidney, probably a consequence of long-standing, progressive, chronic interstitial nephritis. Typically, the changes at this stage are such that the original cause could not be deduced. There is also evidence of incipient pulmonary failure, with alveolar and bronchial effusions, but no significant accompanying inflammation, while the dilatation of the cardiac chambers suggests early, secondary cardiomyopathy (there are no changes to indicate primary dilated cardiomyopathy), possibly a consequence of anaemia.